Commune: Niebylec (pow. strzyżowski, woj. podkarpackie)

Framework element or context represented:
Pleistocene sediments in the Carpathians.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
The sequence of the Early Pleistocene connected with the transgression and recession of South Polish Glaciation in Carpathians.

Comparative assessment justification:
Unique sequence of the Early Pleistocene in Carpathians with the complex of gravels with Scandinavian material and varved clays.

Protection status and accessibility:
The gravel-pit is proposed to protection as dacumentary site after the end of exploitation.

Character of site: Artificial outcrop.

Area: c. 0.3 ha

Altitude: 275 m a.s.l.

Lithology: gravels, sands, silts, clays

Discipline: Palaeoenvironment, Stratigraphy of Quaternary

Process Age: *all periods

Bedrock Age: Pleistocene, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
The little town Niebylec is situated in the Dynów Foothill of the Eastern Carpathians. The big gravel-pit in Niebylec crop out the profile of Pleistocene deposits over the 30 m thick. The first stage of sedimentation took place during the period from the transgression to the regression of ice-sheet connected with oldest glaciation of the Polish territory, probably the Sanian Glaciation corresponding with Mindel II. The next one is dated to the last glaciation – Early Vistulian. The time of break between two mentioned events is estimated to about 340 ka years. Gravels and sands, which begin the sequence, do not contain fragments of Scandinavian rocks but there its admixture is noted higher upward. Typical varved clays, rhythmically bedded of the thickness about 10 m cover the complex of gravels. According to the number of pairs of clear and dark layers these limnoglacial sediments had accumulated here during about 60 years. The Early Pleistocene deposits dated with the thermoluminescence method (TL) correspond with the time span from 509±76 ka to 412±62 ka BP. This means, that glacial and fluvioglacial complex of the Early Pleistocene had been deposited about 97 ka years. The upper surface of the described clays was cut by erosion and covered with loess-like loams of the Early Vistulian age, dated to TL 71±10 ka BP.


BUTRYM J., GERLOCH T. 1985-Contribution à la chronostratigraphie des dépôts de glaciation Cracovienne (Mindel) dans l'avant-pays de Dynów (French sum.). Studia Geomorph. Carpatho - Balc. 19: 29-35.     GERLACH T. 1993-A model of deposition of loess in central part of the Polish Flysch Carpathians during the last cold stage. Geogr. Polon. 60: 175-179.     GERLACH T., KOSZARSKI L., KOSZARSKI A. 1983-Pełny profil osadów zlodowacenia krakowskiego w paleodolinie w Niebylcu na Pogórzu Dynowskim (Polish only). Sprawozdanie z Posiedzeń Kom. Nauk. Oddz. PAN w Krakowie - lipiec-grudzień 1981, 25, 2: 323-324.