Commune: Muszyna (pow. nowosądecki, woj. małopolskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Mineral water springs, exhalation of CO2.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Natural exhalations of carbon dioxide.

Comparative assessment justification:
Exhalation of CO2 concentrated in a limited area with accompanying fenomena: calcareous tufa, ochre and mineral springs. One and only site of the mofette in Polish Carpathians.

Protection status and accessibility:
Mofette at the Złocki steam established as monument of inanimate nature (1998) for memory of Prof. H. Świdziński is situated in the Poprad Landscape Park. The area should be enlarged to enclose dated tufa, peat and a sequence of Upper Cretaceous Flysch. The mofette is accessible by didactic trail.

Character of site: Mofette and related sediments.

Area: 3 ha

Altitude: 560-600 m a.s.l.

Lithology: other sedimentary rocks, peats

Discipline: Geomorphology, Stratigraphy of Quaternary, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic, Tectonics

Process Age: Holocene, *all periods

Bedrock Age: Holocene, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
The Beskid Sądecki Mts is an exceptional zone of mineral water resources in the Outer Carpathians. The surrounding of the Złocki stream deserves particular interest due to mineral water springs with dissolved CO2 and exhalation of CO2 as mofettes. They occur within a very complicated and interesting geological structure of the Krynica Subunit of the Magura Unit. Outcrops of red shales of the Upper Cretaceous are of a considerable stratigraphic value as the oldest deposits of the Magura Unit - Krynica Subunit. The unique locality of the Late Holocene calcareous tufa and peat associated with mineral waters and dated by radiocarbon method at 630+80 BP is a supplementary value of this area. The mofette at Złockie is the most interesting geosite. The mofette is covered by water from the stream itself as well as from proximal subaquaeous mineral springs, with abundant ochre. The mofette exhales daily about 15,000 m3 CO2, derived from a deep basement, subducted under the Carpathian orogen, Exhalations are situated in axial part of dislocated anticlinal structure.


ALEXANDROWICZ Z. (ed), MARGIELEWSKI W., URBAN J., GONERA M. 1996–Geoconservation of the Beskid Sądecki Mountains and the Sącz Basin, Polish Carpathians (English sum.). Stud. Naturae 42: 1-148.    ALEXANDROWICZ Z., POPRAWA D., RĄCZKOWSKI W. 1999–Stratotypes and other important geosites of the Polish Carpathians. Pol. Geol. Inst. Special Papers 2: 33-46.     BIRKENMAJER K., OSZCZYPKO N. 1989–Cretaceous and Paleogene lithostratigraphic units of the Magura Nappe. Krynica Subunit. Carpathians. Ann. Pol. Soc. Geol. 59: 145-181.     OSZCZYPKO N., DUDZIAK J., MALATA E. 1990–Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous trough Paleogene deposits of the Magura Nappe in the Beskid Sądecki Range, Polish Outer Carpathians (English sum.). Stud. Geol. Pol., 97: 109-181.     RAJCHEL J., CHRZĄSTOWSKI J., RAJCHEL L. 1999–Mofette from Złockie near Muszyna in the Magura Unit of the Outer Flysch Carpathians (English sum.). Przegląd Geol. 47: 657-665.     ŚWIDZIŃSKI H. 1965–Natural exhalations of carbon dioxide in the Polish Carpathians (English sum.). Rocz. Pol. Tow. Geol. 35: 417-429.