Commune: Dobra (pow. limanowski, woj. małopolskie) , Tymbark (pow. limanowski, woj. małopolskie)
Framework element or context represented:
Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Morphological, gravitational forms developed in the Outer Carpathians flysch on mount ridge and slope.
Comparative assessment justification:
Mt Łopień is representative for gravitational processes typical for morphologic evolution of mounts (slopes, ridges) in the Flysch Carpathians, different forms and phenomena typical for these processes are accumulated in the relatively small area and relations betwen them can be studied here.
Protection status and accessibility:
Grota Zbójnicka cave has been legally protected as nature monument since 1998, the ridge and northern slopes of the Mt Łopień are poropsed for protection as natural-landscape complex.
Character of site: Landslide forms and pseudokarst caves.
Area: 400 ha
Altitude: 700-950 m a.s.l.
Process Age: Holocene, Quaternary, *all periods
Bedrock Age: Paleogene, *all periods
Description of primary interest:
Mt Łopień represents isolated mount typical for the Beskid Wyspowy Montain Group with flattened ridge (elevated 400-500 m above valleys) and steep slopes. It is formed of flysch of Magura unit: thick-bedded sandstones of Magura Fm underlied by shales and thin-bedded sandstones. Geological structure of the massif has stimulated gravitational disintegration of slopes. Top surface of the mount (“old peneplene”) is modified by trenches partially filled by peat-bog (about 4 000 years old). On the northern slope several landslides are observed. In the upper part of one talus type cave (Grota Zbójnicka, 404 m long) is located. The cave represents maze network of narrow crevices with several chambers formed due to large blocks moving. Other landslide situated on the north-western part of Mt Łopień is separated by trench and head-scarp (5-7 m high and 200 m long) from a slope. Near the scarp more then 10 nonkarst caves, mainly crevice type, occur. One of the most interesting is Złotopieńska Dziura cave (105 m) consisting of four levels of passages. The passages are similar in shape and direction but each lower level is slightly shifted towards the slope. Observations in the cave prove very little direct vertical shift along the scarp surface (crack). Thus the landslide was formed due to balance loss and consisted on tensional, almost horizontal translation of the massif along to direction normal to the scarp and subsequent gravitational disintegration of rock masses.
BAUMGART-KOTARBA M. 1974–Development of mountain ridges in the Flysch Carpathians (English sum.). Prace Geogr. 106, pp. 136. KONON A. 1996–Tektonika góry Łopień (Beskid Wyspowy) (in Polish). Prz. Geol. 44, 12: 1195-1198. MALATA E., MALATA T., OSZCZYPKO N. 1996–Litho- and biostratigraphy of the Magura Nappe in the eastern part of the Beskid Wyspowy range. Ann. Soc. Geolog. Pol. 66: 269-284. MARGIELEWSKI W., URBAN J. 2000–The type of initiation of mass movements in the Flysch Carpathians, studied on the base of structural development of the selected crevice type caves, southern Poland) (English sum.). Prz. Geol. 48, 3: 268-274. MARGIELEWSKI W., URBAN J. 2002–Initiation of mass movement in the Polish Flysch Carpathians studied in the selected crevice type caves. In: Landslides (eds. Rybář J., Stemberk J., Wagner P.). AA Balkema Publ., Lisse-Abingdon-Exton-Tokyo: 405-409. MARGIELEWSKI W., URBAN J. in print–Crevice type caves as initial forms of rock landslides development in the Flysch Carpathians. Geomorphology. PULINA M. (ed) 1997–Jaskinie polskich Karpat fliszowych (Polish only). V. 2. Wyd. Pol. Tow. Przyj. Nauk o Ziemi, Warszawa, pp. 228. VITEK J. 1983–Classification of pseudokarst forms in Czechoslovakia. Intern. Journ. of Speleology 13, 1-18.