Commune: Koszyce (pow. proszowicki, woj. małopolskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Deposits of the Carpathian Foredeep.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Litohostratigraphy of Witów Series.

Comparative assessment justification:
The outstanding site of Witów Series.

Protection status and accessibility:
The site is proposed to protection.

Character of site: Gravel pit.

Area: 2 ha

Altitude: 180-210 m a.s.l.

Lithology: other siliceous rocks, limestones, silstones, claystones, gravels, sands, loesses

Discipline: Palaeoenvironment, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic

Process Age: *all periods

Bedrock Age: Pleistocene, Neogene, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
In the gravel pit in Witów, Witów Series and Quaternary deposits are visible. Witów Series (ca. 22 m) consists of thick beds of sand (crumbling sandstones) with gravel, gravels and cobbles, sometimes very coarse-grained, and sometimes with the boulders admixture. Maximum diameters of clasts reaches up to 0.7 m. Clasts are formed mainly from the most resistant sandstones of Carpathian origin. They are accompanied by crystalline rocks and limestones of the similar origin. Witów Series was formed by braided river. In the intercalations of siltstones and in sandstones fossil plant remains (Late Miocene to Pliocene age) are found. Also joints and faults are present. Lower part of Quaternary sediments consists of mixed gravels, material from Witów Series and that of glacial origin - mainly Scandinavian crystalline rocks and flints (San II glaciation). In the top of the outcrop loesses Vistulian age occur.


BOCHNAK A., BRUD S., GAWLIK A., GODLESKI P., WOROBIEC G. 2004–Unique geological,  paleobotanical and archaeological site in Witów near Brzesko Nowe (Southern Poland). Polisch Geol. Institute Special Papers  13: 125-130.     BRUD S. 2004–Palaeogeograpgy of the western Sandomierz Basin in Late Neogene and Early Quaternary times (Carpathian Foredeep, South Poland).  Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 74, 1: 63-93.     BRUD S., WOROBIEC G. 2003–Results of investigations on plant macroremains found in the Witów Series (Southern Poland). (English sum.). Przegl. Geol. 51, 5: 392-401.     DŻUŁYŃSKI S., RUTKOWSKI J.,SCHIDELER G.L. 1974–An evaluation of flysch-derived fluvial gravels as provenance indicators. Rocz. Pol. Tow. Geol. 44,. 2-3: 171-180.     ŁYCZEWSKA J. 1948–Report on the geological  investigations in the north-estern corner of Brzesko Nowe map 1:100 000 (Carpathian foreland) (English sum.). Biul. PIG 42: 46-75.     RUTKOWSKI  J. 1998–O staroczwartorzędowych żwirach z Witowa In polysh only). In:Współczesne procesy morfologiczne i ewolucja rzeźby progu Karpat i ich przedpola. Inst. Geografii Uniw. Jagiell., Stow. Geomorf. Polskich...:  90-97.     ZUCHIEWICZ W. 1995–Selected aspects of neotectonics in Polish Carpathians. Folia Quaternaria 66: 145-204.