Commune: Józefów (pow. biłgorajski, woj. lubelskie) , Susiec (pow. tomaszowski, woj. lubelskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Relief of the river valleys.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Rapid steeps in river valleys within the active tectonic zone.

Comparative assessment justification:
Exceptional forms of river erosion connected with neotectonic movements.

Protection status and accessibility:
Waterfalls are located within the nature reserves established in 1958: Szum (16.96 ha), Czartowe Pole (63.71 ha) and Nad Tanwią (41.33 ha). These areas very tourist accessible are situated in the Puszcza Solecka Landscape Park (ca 29 000 ha).

Character of site: Forms of the river erosion.

Area: 122 ha

Altitude: 130-150 m a.s.l.

Lithology: sandstones, other siliceous rocks, limestones, marls, sands, loesses

Discipline: Geomorphology, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic, Tectonics

Process Age: Quaternary, *all periods

Bedrock Age: Neogene, Cretaceous, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
The Roztocze is a ridge composed with many hills as uplifted blocks conditioned by the dislocations or tectonic grabens. It runs from NW to SE across the Polish-Ukrainian territories and spreads between the Lublin-Lviv Upland and the Fore-Carpathian Depression. Main geological formations are marls, opokas and gaizes of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian, Maastrichtian) as well as Miocene (Badenian, Sarmatian) sands (i.e. rhodolith sands), sandstones, marls, limestones (i.e. reef limestones and microbial limestones). Mesozoic deposits are covered by loess. Particular elements of the relief reflect faults connected with the development of the Carpathian Trough during the Miocene and have been caused emerging of Roztocze as a horst. Several dislocations are active up till now and contemporary vertical movements reach 0,5-2 mm/year. Rapid steeps in gap valleys of Szum, Sopot, Jeleń and Tanew rivers flowing to SW, represent most typical elements of the Roztocze relief. These valleys cut the escarpment zone of Roztocze at a depth of 10-20 m and erosion terraces developed since the Late Glaciation up till the present day. Rapid steeps as low waterfalls are formed within Upper Cretaceous resistant rocks. Only in the Sopot river valley they occur in Miocene limestones, too. About 30 waterfalls are situated at edges of the still active faults, running parallel to the southern margin of the Lublin Upland. The group of them consisting of small rocky steps not exceeding 1.2 m occurs on the Jeleń river. The occurrence of waterfalls indicates the recent activity of the fault system in the marginal part of the Lublin Upland.


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