Commune: Krzeszowice (pow. krakowski, woj. małopolskie)
Framework element or context represented:
Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
The sequence of Upper Givetian and lowermost Frasnian limestones (the Dębnik Marble).
Comparative assessment justification:
Hypostratotype of the Middle/Upper Devonian boundary one and only in the Cracow Variscan Branch. Holly Cross Mts. - Wietrznia, Ślichowice in Kielce (nature reserve and some other active quarries near Chęciny), Kadzielnia Quarry in Kielce (nature reserve) the same stratigraphic interval developed in different facies.
Protection status and accessibility:
Candidate for protection, very well accessible.
Character of site: Abandoned quarry.
Area: 2 ha
Altitude: 435 m a.s.l.
Lithology: limestones, dolostones
Discipline: Palaeobiology, Palaeoenvironment, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic
Process Age: Holocene, *all periods
Bedrock Age: Devonian, *all periods
Description of primary interest:
The elevated structure on the eastern margin of Upper Silesian Coal Basin described as the Dębnik Antycline (Dębnik Dome) is formed of Devonian and Lower Carboniferous carbonates. It has been of interest to geologists since the XVIII century. The reference section of Devonian carbonates crop out near Dębnik. The sequence is represented here by six lithostratigraphic units: Zbrza Dolomite, Dębnik Limestone, Nodular Limestone, Platy Limestone, Grained and Micritic Limestone. Their thickness is about 400 m. The Carmelite Quarry is the most know site of the Middle/Upper Devonian studied several times in detail. Dark-grey and black bituminous Dębnik limestone called locally „Dębnik Marble” dip to WNW forming a sequence of layers about 35 m thick. They are distinctly bedded and poorly fossiliferous. In the eastern part of the outcrop a few layers of limestones yield stromatoporoids, corals and brachiopods indicating the Upper Givetian age. They pass upward into nodular limestone with brachiopods and conodonts, typical of the Lower Frasnian. The stratigraphic zonation based on brachiopods and conodonts has been documented here. The Dębnik Marble was used as a decorative stone in sacral and monumental building for a long time.
BALIŃSKI A. 1979–Brachiopods and Conodonts from the Frasnian of the Dębnik Antycline, Southern Poland. Palaeont. Pol., 39: 4-95. ŁAPTAŚ A. 1982–Sedimentation of Middle Devonian carbonates of the Dębnik area (Southern Poland). Studia Geol. Polonica 75: 59-100. MALEC J., RACKI G., RACKA M. 1987–The leperditiid - charophyte assemblage from the Givetian of Dębnik and its stratigraphic value. Acta Geol. Polonica 37, 1-2: 51-59. NARKIEWICZ M., RACKI G. 1984–Stratigraphy of the Devonian of the Dębnik anticline (English sum.). Kwart. Geol. 28, 3-4: 513-546. RACKI G., BALIŃSKI A. 1981–Environmental interpretation of the atrypid shell beds from the Middle to Upper Devonian boundary of the Cross Mts and Cracow Upland. Acta Geol. Pol. 31, 3-4: 177-211. RÖMER F. 1863–Die Attersbestimmung des schwarzen Marmos von Dembnik im Gebiete von Krakau. Zeit. Dtsch. Geol. Ges. 15: 708-712. SIEDLECKI S. 1954–Palaeozic formations of the Cracow Region (English sum.). Biul. Inst. Geol., 73: 1-415. ZARĘCZNY S. 1889–Übar das Krakauer Devon. Jb. Geol. Reichsanst. 38: 46-68.