Commune: Sandomierz (pow. sandomierski, woj. świętokrzyskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Profile of Vistulian Loess and Holocene deposits dated by molluscs and radiocarbon analyses.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Loess in slope facies and fossiliferous Holocene deposits covering an ancient hill formed of Cambrian shales.

Comparative assessment justification:
The unique outcrop of paleorelief covered with Pleistocene hillwash intercalating loess and Holocene deposits with molluscs. Other profiles of loess crop out in few places close to the centre of Sandomierz.

Protection status and accessibility:
The outcrop is proposed to protection as the documentary site. It should be one of important educational stops of the didactic trail joining Sandomierz and Pieprzowe Mts Nature Reserve (no. T 24).

Character of site: Natural outcrop along the road.

Area: 0.1 ha

Altitude: 150 m a.s.l.

Lithology: shales, silts, clays, loesses

Discipline: Palaeobiology, Palaeoenvironment, Stratigraphy of Quaternary

Process Age: Quaternary, *all periods

Bedrock Age: Quaternary, Cambrian, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
The outcrop of the Kamień Plebański is situated on the Vistula Holocene terrace on the left bank of the river. It is a scarp up to 7 m high spreading along the road on the stretch of 80 m. Strongly folded grey shales of the Middle Cambrian age occur in its western part forming the ancient hill with a gentle slope lowering eastward and covered by loess. Thin intercalations of rock-detritus developed as stratified periglacial slope deposits occur within this loess. It comprises an assemblage of molluscs composed of 7 species with Succinea oblonga elongata, Pupilla muscorum and Vallonia tenuilabris. The fauna is similar to those described as typical of the Upper Younger Loess. Grey and yellowish-grey silts with an admixture of organic matter cover the loess and Cambrian shales, and are visible in the upper part of the profile. Numerous shells of bivalves – Unio pictorum laying in the concave-down position are accumulated at the bottom of these silts. Shells were dated by the 14C method to 6230 – 6540 years BP and represents the Middle Holocene hillwash deposits. They have been accumulated in a small water body at mouths of gorges cutting the slope of the high scarp, which borders the left side of the Vistula River valley.


ALEXANDROWICZ S.W. 1995–Malacofauna of the Vistulian Loess in the Cracow Region (S Poland). Annal. UMCS, B-50, 1: 1-28.     ALEXANDROWICZ S.W. & LINDNER L. 1997–Loess and Holocene deluvial deposits in Kamień Plebański near Sandomierz (Engish sum.). Geologia, Kwart. AGH, 23/1: 29-43.     DYLIK J. 1960–Rhythmically stratified slope waste deposits. Biul. Peryglac., 8: 31-41.     LOŽEK V. 1965–Das Problem der Lössbildung und die Lössmollusken. Eiszeitalt. Gegenwart, 16: 61-75.     MARUSZCZAK H. 1980–Stratigraphy and chronology of the Vistulian Loesses in Poland. Quatern. Stud. Pol., 2: 57-76.