Commune: Lipnik (pow. opatowski, woj. świętokrzyskie)
Framework element or context represented:
Międzygórz Formation of Ordovician, Kielce subregion of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts, northern part of the Małopolska Caledonian massif.
Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Stratotype of Międzygórz Formation, microtectonic forms.
Comparative assessment justification:
Despite of strong tectonic deformation and reduction the site represent the best outcrop of Ordovician in this part of the region and the only outcrop of the Lower Ordovician conglomerate (Chełm Conglomerate Mem.).
Protection status and accessibility:
Proposed for protection, accessible by touristic trail.
Character of site: Abandoned quarry.
Area: 0.5 ha
Altitude: 220-235 m a.s.l.
Lithology: sandstones, conglomerates, breccias, limestones, shales
Discipline: Palaeobiology, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic, Tectonics
Process Age: *all periods
Bedrock Age: Silurian, Ordovician, *all periods
Description of primary interest:
Sequence of strongly tectonically deformed the Ordovician and Lower Silurian rocks crops out in SE face of abandoned quarry. The strata strike NW-SE and dip to NE. Recent studies prooved that the Lower Ordovician rocks form several tectonic scales thrust each over other with preserved normal position of beds (hieroglyphs). The scales are formed of bedded, greenish-grey, glauconitic sandstones with insert of green conglomerate (building one of the scale). The conglomerate is composed of quartzitic, quartz and shale pebbles. The conglomerate scale is underlain by a layer of tectonic breccia (0.2-0.6 m). These rocks are ascribed to the Międzygórz Fm (Arenig) by some authors, whereas others account them to the Kleczanów Sandstone Member (Arenig) and Chełm Conglomerate Member of the Międzygórz Sandstone Fm (Late Tremadoc and Early Arenig). Stratigraphy of the rocks is based on fossils: brachiopods, chitinozoans and conodonts. Specific paleogeography of the Ordovician, reflected in thickness of the sediments and occurrence of the conglomerate are interpreted in two ways: as effects of tectonic activity or eustatic process. Upper part of the section is represented with several scales of overturned rocks: a) dark-greenish sandstones bearing brachiopods, mollusks and nautiloids – Bukówka Sandstone Fm or (according to other classification) Dyminy Orthid Sandstone Member of Międzygórz Fm (Lower Llandvirn), b) slightly dolomitised limestones abounding with microfossils – Mójcza Limestones Fm (Caradoc-Ashgill); c) graptolitic shales – Bardo Fm (Llandovery). Strong tectonic deformation is caused by vicinity of the Świętokrzyski Fault.
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