Commune: Chęciny (pow. kielecki, woj. świętokrzyskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Sequence of marine sediments of Lower Muschelkalk of Permian-Mesozoic cover of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts region.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Lithostratigraphical profile of Middle Triassic, paleontological site.

Comparative assessment justification:
Site representative for lower part of Muschelkalk of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts, located in peripherial part of the Middle Triassic German basin; used in analysis of the peri-Tethys basin development (comparative studies with other regions, especially Upper Silesia and Germany).

Protection status and accessibility:
Nature reserve “Wolica” (since 2000) – well accessible, in the vicinity of the railway station and local road.

Character of site: Abandoned quarry.

Area: 2.78 ha

Altitude: 210-230 m a.s.l.

Lithology: limestones, marls

Discipline: Palaeobiology, Palaeoenvironment, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic

Process Age: *all periods

Bedrock Age: Triassic, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
Carbonates of the Lower Muschelkalk crop out in the abandoned quarry, now partly filled with water. The rock sequence represents the upper part of the Wellenkalk (Wavy-Beds), Łukowa Beds and the lower part of the Plagiostroma striatum Beds. The rocks slightly dip (10-20º) to SW and they are partly covered by pond, debris and plants. Thus, there are accessible now: 1) the uppermost Wellenkalk (2-3 m) and the lower Łukowa Beds (several metres) – N and E faces, 2) upper Łukowa Beds and lower Plagiostroma striatum Beds (more than 10 m) – S face of the quarry. Lumpy, crumpled and lenticular-bedded limestones, marly limestones, marls and biodetrital limestones represent Wellenkalk. Łukowa beds consists of bedded, micritic and biodetrital limestones with numerous trace fossils (horizon of enyteropeustan burrows etc.). Plagiostroma striatum Beds are formed of thin-bedded coiquinas, biodetrital, pelitic and lumpy limestones. In the rocks specific structures occur: various syndepositional disturbances, erosional forms, slump structures, lamination. These structures are supposed to form due to instability of fresh sediments influenced by tectonic mobility of the basin, high water energy and activity of benthic fauna. The rocks are abounding with fossils: brachiopods, lamellibranchs, crinoids, ostracods, gastropods, cephalopods, conodonts, foraminifers and fishes. Unique bone-bed 15 cm thick was found in the upper part of Wellenkalk (now bellow the water table). It represents quasiautigenic tanatocenosis with fish remains: teeth, scales, fin rays, vertebrates, jaws etc. Remnants of Selachii (sharks) and Chondrostei (Actinopterygii) predominate among these fossils.


BIALIK A., TRAMMER J., ZAPAŚNIK T. 1972–Synsedimentary disturbances in Middle Triassic carbonates of the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geol. Pol. 22, 2: 265-274.     KAŹMIERCZAK J., PSZCZÓŁKOWSKI A. 1969–Burrows of enteropneusta in Muschelkalk (Middle Triassic) of the Holy Cross Mts, Poland. Acta Palaeont. Pol. 14, 2: 299-318.     LISZKOWSKI J. 1973–A bone bed from the “Wellen-Beds” of the Lower Muschelkalk (Lowermost Anisian) at Wolica near Kielce (Holy Cross Mts) (English sum.). Przegl. Geol. 21, 12: 644-648.     SENKOWICZOWA H. 1957–The Muschelkalk on the southern slope of the Święty Krzyż Mts, between Czarna Nida and Chmielnik (English sum.). Biul. Inst. Geol. 122: 5-81.     SENKOWICZOWA H. 1991–Middle Triassic cephalopods from the Góry Świętokrzyskie Mts (English sum.). Biul. Państw. Inst. Geol. 365: 95-138.     SZULC J. 2000–Middle Triassic evolution of northern peri-Thetys area as influenced by early opening of the Tethys ocean. Ann. Soc. Geol. Pol. 70, 1: 1-48.     TRAMMER J. 1972a–Beyrichites (Beyrichites) sp. from the Lower Muschelkalk of the Holy Crss Mts. Acta Geol. Pol. 22, 1: 25-28.     TRAMMER J. 1972b–Stratigraphical and palaeogeographical significance of conodonts from the Muschelkalk of the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geol. Pol. 22, 2: 219-232.     TRAMMER J. 1975–Stratigraphy and facies development of the Muschelkalk in the south-western Holy Cross Mts. Acta Geol. Pol. 25, 2: 180-216.     TRAMMER J. 1976–Punkt IIIA-5 – Wolica – kamieniołom .wapienia muszlowego (in Polish only). In: Pożaryski W., Głazek J. (eds), Przew. 48 Zjazdu Pol. Tow. Geol., Starachowice, 24-26.09.1976. Wyd. Geol. Warszawa: 214-217.     WRÓBLEWSKI T. 2001–Geodiversity conservation in the Góry Świętokrzyskie region (English sum.). Min. Środ., Państw. Inst. Geol., Warszawa, 88 pp.