Commune: Chęciny (pow. kielecki, woj. świętokrzyskie) , Piekoszów (pow. kielecki, woj. świętokrzyskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Variscian hydrothermal mineralization and secondary ore in Devonian limestones, Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts., Kielce subregion; Quaternary paleontological site.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Hydrothermal mineralization, historical mines, Quaternary paleontological site.

Comparative assessment justification:
Góra Miedzianka represents ore deposit with unique mineral associations of hydrothermal and weathering zone and the oldest phases of Cenozoic karst; the Kozi Grzbiet paleontological site plays significant role in climato-stratigraphy of Pleistocene and studies of vertebrates evolution.

Protection status and accessibility:
Nature reserve “Góra Miedzianka” (since 1958) and nature monument “Kozi Grzbiet” (since 1987) – well accessible with touristic trail.

Character of site: Hills with historical mines and quarries, karst forms and natural crags.

Area: 30 ha

Altitude: 265-355 m a.s.l.

Lithology: hydrotermal veins, marls, sands, clays

Discipline: Geomorphology, Stratigraphy of Quaternary, Mineralogy, Tectonics, Geology of mineral deposits

Process Age: Neogene, Paleogene, *all periods

Bedrock Age: Neogene, Paleogene, Triassic, Permian, Devonian, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
Góra Miedzianka is a hill (70 m above plains) formed of the Frasnian limestones disintegrated by faults into blocks, which bear tectonic scales of Fammenian marls. Calcite veins bearing sulphide and sulpho-salt minerals of Cu, Fe, Zn, Pb and Ni occur in the limestones and represent Variscan hydrothermal mineralization. The secondary ore bodies, enriched in chalcocite, copper carbonates and iron oxides concentrated in cementation and oxidation zone, mainly in Cenozoic paleokarst forms under the Triassic clastic-clayey cover of the Devonian at southern part of the hill. Weathering of the original ores brought to formation of specific minerals: miedziankit, staszycyt, lubeckit. These irregular ore bodies (veins, impregnations of detrital-argillous fills of chambers, irregular aggregates) were mined since the Middle Ages to the half of 20th century. It resulted in occurrence of many kilometres of mine galleries and numerous surface remnants. The mine often followed paleokarst forms, thus some caves have been explored here. The karst forms of upper part of the hill represent the oldest phases of Cenozoic denudation of the region. The hill ridge is crowned with natural crags. In the neighbouring hill Kozi Grzbiet, Pleistocene fossils was found in fills of paleokarst fissure - remnant of small mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and gastropods. Studies of the fauna, typical for moderate climate, enabled to recognize new interglacial period and divide south-Polish glacial (Mindel) into two glacials: Nida and San. Sand blanket located on the Miedzianka hill slope (320 m a.s.l.) represents fluvioglacial sediment of the kame terrace of the south-Polish glacials.


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