Commune: Kielce (pow. Kielce, woj. świętokrzyskie)
Framework element or context represented:
Sequence of Devonian carbonates of the Paleozoic core of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts, Kielce subregion; several phases of post-Variscian denudation and karst.
Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Stratigraphic sequence, sedimentary structures and paleontological site of Upper Devonian, post-Variscan paleokarst.
Comparative assessment justification:
One of the best recognized continuous Frasnian sequence in the northern margin of the Polish-Moravian platform with characteristic facies and fossils, used for regional and interregional paleogeographic analys; post-Variscian, Permian-Triassic terrestial (karst) forms and phenomena unique at the interregional scale.
Protection status and accessibility:
Nature reserve “Wietrznia – Zbigniew Rubinowski nature reserve” (since 1999) – well accessible, located in the city park.
Character of site: Abandoned quarry.
Area: 10.5 ha
Altitude: 250-305 m a.s.l.
Lithology: sandstones, conglomerates, breccias, limestones, dolostones, marls, silts, clays, other organic rocks
Discipline: Palaeobiology, Palaeoenvironment, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic, Tectonics
Process Age: *all periods
Bedrock Age: Triassic, Permian, Devonian, *all periods
Description of primary interest:
Wietrznia abandoned quarry is outcrop of the Devonian carbonats with Permian-Triassic and Cenozoic paleokarst. Continuous stratigraphic sequence ranges from Givetian (SW part of the quarry) to Fammenian (N face). The rocks are abounding with fossils: corals, brachiopods, goniatites, moluscs, stromatoporoids, crinoids, also ostracods, trilobites, foraminifers, conodonts and fishes. Geological studies in the site resulted in: 1) description of new taxa, 2) analyses of fauna evolution, 3) data on faunistic assemblages and their reaction on the global events, 4) biostratigraphy and definition of Givetian-Frasnian boundary, 5) reconstruction of lateral rock differentiation. The Givetian-Frasnian thick-bedded carbonates (Wietrznia Beds) represent biodetrital sediments of peripherial part of the Kowala shallow – an elevation near the northern margin of the Moravia-Małopolska shelf. The platform was gradually differentiated and deepened during the Late Devonian, therefore the Wietrznia Beds pass upward to micritic, thin-bedded limestones and marls (Fammenian). Syndepositional movements of small tectonic blocks caused vertical and lateral lithological diversity (N quarry face). Lower part of the sequence (SW quarry face) is dolomitized, presumably due to syndepositional process related to submarine thermal springs. Uplifting after the Variscian orogeny resulted in several phases of denudation and terrestrial sedimentation related to tectonic events. Relics of these processes are: 1) recrystallisation of Devonian limestones, 2) megabreccia filling large paleokarst doline, 3) Permian-Triassic sinkholes filled with carbonates, clays and sandstones, 4) Early Triassic fissures filled with sandstones.
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