Commune: Kielce (pow. Kielce, woj. świętokrzyskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Carbonates of Upper Devonian of the Paleozoic core of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts, Kielce subregion; hydrothermal mineralization and Cenozoic paleokarst.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Paleontological site, sedimentary structures and sequence of Upper Devonian, mineralization, paleokarst and caves.

Comparative assessment justification:
Outcrop of typical Devonian bioherm (the largest known in the region) and facies (fauna assemblages) in its vicinity, useful for paleogeographic analyses (with Devonian of the Kraków-Silesia, Moravia and other regions). Site of Cenozoic karst, which can be compared e.g. with paleokarst of Kraków-Częstochowa Upland.

Protection status and accessibility:
Central fragment of the quarry protected as nature reserve “Kadzielnia” (since 1962), the rest arranged as city park and amphitheatre – very well accessible, situated in the town.

Character of site: Abandoned quarry.

Area: 9 ha

Altitude: 250-295 m a.s.l.

Lithology: hydrotermal veins, limestones

Discipline: Palaeobiology, Geomorphology, Palaeoenvironment, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic, Mineralogy

Process Age: Devonian, *all periods

Bedrock Age: Neogene, Paleogene, Permian, Devonian, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
The Frasnian large bioherm, bedded limestones and the Fammenian carbonates crop out in the abandoned quarry. The Kadzielnia Limestone (Kadzielnia-type bioherm) represents mud-supported mound rich in microbiotas, corals and stromatoporoids. It is cut with neptunian dykes filled with Frasnian and Fammenian limestones. Slope of the mound is covered with Detrital Limestones (Detrital Stromatoporoids Beds) – calcarenites and calcirudites bearing above mentioned and other fossils. Both units are flanked and partly covered by micritic Manticoceras Limestone of Upper Frasnian, which compensated morphological depression. The Frasnian carbonates are overlain by the Lower Fammenian: thin Cheiloceras Limestone and thick marly-shale unit. Organic buildup, biodetrital carbonates and Manticoceras Limestone were formed in northern part of the Kowala shallow – an elevation near northern margin of the Moravia-Małopolska shelf, that gradually deepened and differentiated during the Frasnian. The Fammenian marls and limestones developed in deeper basin. Many fossils: corals, brachiopods, goniatites, moluscs, stromatoporoids, crinoids, ostracods, trilobites, tentaculites, foraminifers, conodonts, other microbiotas and fishes have been studied here (type locality). Variscian and post-Variscan hydrothermal veins of calcite-barite-galena mineralization occur here. After uplifting in the Paleogene, limestones were strongly karstified. Numerous paleokarst forms (26 caves on 2-3 levels) developed mainly in Neogene and Pleistocene, although Permian-Triassic age of sinkholes was also gealousy argued. Early Pleistocene vertebrates were found in karst fills.


BALIŃSKI A., OLEMPSKA E., RACKI G. (eds.) 2002–Biotic responses to the Late Devonian global events: introductory remarks. Acta Palaeont. Pol. 47, 2: 186-404.     DEVONIAN REEFS ... 1993–Devonian reefs of Poland. Acta Palaeont. Pol., 37 (1992), 2-4: 85-428.     GORIZDO-KULCZYCKA Z. 1950–Les Dipneustes dèvniens du Massif de Ste Croix. Acta Geol. Pol. 1, 2: 53-105.     IVANOV A., GINTER M. 1997–Comments on the Late Devonian Placoderms from the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Palaeont. Pol., 42: 413-426.     KOZŁOWSKI S., RADWAN J., WÓJCIK Z. 1965–The geological reserve Kadzielnia in Kielce (English sum.). Ochr. Przyr., 31: 117-160.     KULCZYCKI J. 1957–Upper Devonian fishes from the Holy Cross Mts. Acta Palaeont. Pol. 2: 285-380.     RUBINOWSKI Z., WÓJCIK Z. 1978–Geological expositions of Kielce and its vicinity with some considerations as regards their protection and exploitation (English sum.). Pr. Muz. Ziemi 29: 95-121.     SZULCZEWSKI M. 1995–Depositional evolution of the Holy Cross Mts (Poland) in the Devonian and Carboniferous — a review. Geol. Quaterly, 39: 471-488.     SZULCZEWSKI M. 1995–Stop 2. Kadzielnia quarry. In: Szulczewski M., Dvořak J. eds, Evolution of the Polish-Moravian carnbonate platform (...). Guide to Exc. B4. XIII Intern. Congr. Carb.-Perm. XIII ICC-P. Pol. Geol. Inst. Warszawa: 16-19.     URBAN J. 2002–Kras kopalny trzonu paleozoicznego Gór Świętokrzyskich (Polish only). Streszcz. Ref. Wygł. w 2001 r. Pol. Tow. Geol., Odd. w Poznaniu: 53-69.     URBAN J., GUBAŁA J., KASZA A. 1997–The caves in the Holy Cross Mts region (Central Poland) and their protection (English sum.). Przegl. Geol., 45: 700-706.