Commune: Kielce (pow. Kielce, woj. świętokrzyskie)
Framework element or context represented:
Carbonates of Upper Devonian of the Paleozoic core of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts, Kielce subregion; hydrothermal mineralization and Cenozoic paleokarst.
Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Paleontological site, sedimentary structures and sequence of Upper Devonian, mineralization, paleokarst and caves.
Comparative assessment justification:
Outcrop of typical Devonian bioherm (the largest known in the region) and facies (fauna assemblages) in its vicinity, useful for paleogeographic analyses (with Devonian of the Kraków-Silesia, Moravia and other regions). Site of Cenozoic karst, which can be compared e.g. with paleokarst of Kraków-Częstochowa Upland.
Protection status and accessibility:
Central fragment of the quarry protected as nature reserve “Kadzielnia” (since 1962), the rest arranged as city park and amphitheatre – very well accessible, situated in the town.
Character of site: Abandoned quarry.
Area: 9 ha
Altitude: 250-295 m a.s.l.
Lithology: hydrotermal veins, limestones
Discipline: Palaeobiology, Geomorphology, Palaeoenvironment, Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic, Mineralogy
Process Age: Devonian, *all periods
Bedrock Age: Neogene, Paleogene, Permian, Devonian, *all periods
Description of primary interest:
The Frasnian large bioherm, bedded limestones and the Fammenian carbonates crop out in the abandoned quarry. The Kadzielnia Limestone (Kadzielnia-type bioherm) represents mud-supported mound rich in microbiotas, corals and stromatoporoids. It is cut with neptunian dykes filled with Frasnian and Fammenian limestones. Slope of the mound is covered with Detrital Limestones (Detrital Stromatoporoids Beds) – calcarenites and calcirudites bearing above mentioned and other fossils. Both units are flanked and partly covered by micritic Manticoceras Limestone of Upper Frasnian, which compensated morphological depression. The Frasnian carbonates are overlain by the Lower Fammenian: thin Cheiloceras Limestone and thick marly-shale unit. Organic buildup, biodetrital carbonates and Manticoceras Limestone were formed in northern part of the Kowala shallow – an elevation near northern margin of the Moravia-Małopolska shelf, that gradually deepened and differentiated during the Frasnian. The Fammenian marls and limestones developed in deeper basin. Many fossils: corals, brachiopods, goniatites, moluscs, stromatoporoids, crinoids, ostracods, trilobites, tentaculites, foraminifers, conodonts, other microbiotas and fishes have been studied here (type locality). Variscian and post-Variscan hydrothermal veins of calcite-barite-galena mineralization occur here. After uplifting in the Paleogene, limestones were strongly karstified. Numerous paleokarst forms (26 caves on 2-3 levels) developed mainly in Neogene and Pleistocene, although Permian-Triassic age of sinkholes was also gealousy argued. Early Pleistocene vertebrates were found in karst fills.
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