Commune: Stąporków (pow. konecki, woj. świętokrzyskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Tors formed of Lower Jurassic sandstones (Ostrowiec Beds) of Permian-Mesozoic cover of the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Sandstone tors, pseudokarst caves, sedimentary structures.

Comparative assessment justification:
Piekło pod Niekłaniem is the most picturesque and genetically instructive tor group among some 50 tors’ groups or single tors formed of Triassic and Jurassic clastics (mainly sandstones) in the northern and western part of the region.

Protection status and accessibility:
Nature reserve “Skałki Piekło pod Niekłaniem” (since 1959), accessible by touristic trail.

Character of site: Natural sandstone tors.

Area: 6.3 ha

Altitude: 345-365 m a.s.l.

Lithology: sandstones

Discipline: Geomorphology, Palaeoenvironment

Process Age: Quaternary, *all periods

Bedrock Age: Jurassic, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
The tors of Piekło pod Niekłaniem are attributed by exceptional variety of forms and microforms, what is caused by their lithology and origin. Two sections of indistincly bedded rocks separated with 1-3 m thick section of thin-bedded ones are distinguished in the profile of the tors. Sedimentary structures typical for marine, barrier-lagoon (lower and upper sections) and beach (middle section) sediments are reflected in rock relief. Relics of tree trunks occur in the sandstones. The tors are situated on the low plateau and form three groups: two smaller ones located on the SW and NE margins of the plateau and third, larger group, which covers SE and E and NE parts of the plateau and slope. Tors of W group represent the most picturesque forms: pulpits, bars and mushroom-like forms 5-8 m high. Two pseudokarst caves (each one is 8 m long) occur here. SE and E group is composed of rock walls, pulpits, bars, broad towers, table-like forms and blocks (to 6 m), located in ridge and side-ridge positions. The main elements of NE group are three table-like forms (4-7 m). Typical microforms of microrelief are caverns, pockets, honeycomb structures, ledges and furrows. The tors were uncovered in Neopleistocene, after South-Polish (Mindel) glacials, mainly during last glacial (Vistulian, Würm). The main factor excavating the tors was aeolian abrasion. But the tors have been permanently modelled with weathering and other erosional agents. One of the most efficient process has been linear erosion of subsurface water. Microrelief is controlled by evolution of mineral crust, which is related to interaction between water diffusion in the sandstones and egzogenic factors.


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