Commune: Tomaszów Lubelski (pow. tomaszowski, woj. lubelskie) , Tomaszów Lubelski (pow. tomaszowski, woj. lubelskie)

Framework element or context represented:
Profile and lithology of sandstones of the Biała Góra Fm of the Szczecin-Łódź-Miechów Synclinorium, Central Poland.

Primary geological/geomorphological interest:
Outcrop and subsurface mine of the Lower Cretaceous sandstones.

Comparative assessment justification:
The best outcrop (situated out of the active quarry) of the Lower Cretaceous trasgressive sandstone series in the southeast part of the Danish-Polish Trough connected with unique forms of subsurface exploitation of the sandstones.

Protection status and accessibility:
Not protected, inaccessible for public because of the safety, now.

Character of site: outcrop and abandoned subsurface mine

Area: 2 ha

Altitude: 160-170 m a.s.l.

Lithology: sandstones, conglomerates, breccias

Discipline: Stratigraphy of Phanerozoic, Geology of mineral deposits

Process Age: *all periods

Bedrock Age: Cretaceous, *all periods

Description of primary interest:
The scarp (ca. 150 m long, 10 m high) and abandoned mines representing outcrop of sandstones of the Biała Góra Fm. The Biała Góra Fm is up to 150 m thick and stratigraphically undocumented, but it is interpreted as mainly Middle-Upper Albian series and referred to the Kruszwica Member of Mogilno Formation of the Polish Lowlands. The sandstones are composed of almost pure quartz grains, poorly cemented with argillous or argillous-ferruginous minerals. They are mainly fine-grained, usually well sorted, but conglomeratic inserts have been observed, too. Four-five lithological units differing in the dominating fractions, sorting and admixture of kaolinite and iron oxides, were distinguished in the series. The sandstones are massive or thick-bedded, but in some places they display horizontal bedding or tubular cross-bedding in macro- or microscale. These features indicate that the rocks represent shallow marine deposits of submarine flows and tempestites. In the Nagórzyce site the upper units of the formation – Smardzewice and Nagórzyce Members (this last formed of poorly sorted, partly limonitic sandstones bearing conglomeratic lenses) – crops out. Sequence of the Upper Albian glauconitic sandstones and gaises (lying over the Biała Góra Fm), 1-1.5 m long, crops out in the southern part of the scarp. Soft sandstones of the Biała Góra Fm were exploited since the 18th century in subsurface mines. The largest mines are situated in Nagórzyce and represent four horizontal systems of chambers (1-3 m high). The largest system is ca 500 m long. The sandstone mines in Nagórzyce have been described as a curiosity of nature and historical technology since the beginning of the 20th century.


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