Layout of species accounts

The species included in this publication were described in a standard layout, differing slightly from that adopted in the new edition of “red data book” of vertebrates (Głowaciński, ed. 2001). As it has already been mentioned the layout of species descriptions and the classification of species from the groups of “Extinct” and “Lower Risk” have been simplified.

Presentation of species. Full species name in Latin including authority details (author’s name and year of species description); common names in Polish and English (if used); below order and family in Latin and Polish (if a formal Polish version exists). In some cases (e.g., terrestrial snails) Polish names were verified and completed by the authors. Synonyms of species were given when currently used or only recently withdrawn. Each species was assigned to one of the categories of threat (marked with symbols: EX, EX?, CR, EN, VU, and LR) according to the IUCN recommendations and criteria, in conformity with the classification adopted in the national red list of animals (Głowaciński, ed. 2002). Changes in classification were accepted, if justified by new facts.
     Species descriptions are supplemented with the map of Poland with a special grid of geographical coordinates, used in the former editions of the Polish Red Data Book of Animals (1992, 2001). Distribution of current, probable and past localities of particular species was shown using different point symbols (see explanations to a map).
     The applied grid of coordinates divides the area of Poland into 290 „large cells”, each about 1250 km2 in area (side 1/6º). These cells are double-marked with Arabic ciphers in the zonal direction and with large letters in the meridional direction. „Large cells” consist of 12 smaller basic cells (marked a-l), each about 100 km2 in area. Symbols are placed in „small cells” following a rule: one symbol (providing the most current information) in one cell. If a locality fell precisely on a line of the grid of coordinates, symbols were placed on both sides of this line (e.g., Siro carpaticus – Hnatowe Berdo: 18/Sd,g), unless some logical reasons were against the rule. In some cases, particularly in absence of accurate data on the locations of species (in the older literature), symbols were placed in the most probable locations, or information was neglected. Question mark „?” placed at a symbol means uncertain location.
     Materials included in this edition of the red book were collected and completed till the end of August 2004.

Status. Some information about the distribution and biology of a species, its abundance in the country and changes in abundance, habitats and locations, and about major threats and conservation.

Distribution. A succinct description of the geographical range of a species and its distribution in Poland, taking into account historical and current localities; the contents of this chapter refers to the presented map of Poland, with the original grid of coordinates (used in the former editions of the PRDBA), and the arrangement of factographic material according to accepted time periods. Zoogeographical units follow Udvardy (1978) (see a scheme map) and some other commonly used publications, cited by the authors (e.g., George 1970).

Biotope/Habitat. Information about ecological requirements of a species at different stages of its development; typical habitats, substitute habitats, changes in habitats all over Poland.

Biology. Mode of life, mainly with reference to national populations; reproduction, cycle of development; feeding requirements of larvae and imagines, daily and seasonal activities, phenology, migrations; interactions with other species.

Population size in Poland. Information about the number and size of localities, and if possible, estimate of species abundance (or density) in the country, or estimate of the known local population; these estimates can be only orders of magnitude or their ranges (e.g. tens to hundreds of individuals) for any developmental stage.

Threats and causes of threats. Identified and probable threats to a species, with explanation of causes of those threats (if possible); limiting factors (including anthropogenic factors; explanation of their role with details); scale and causes of decline in localities; this information can be supplemented with data from neighbouring countries (it is possible to refer to the red books and red lists of the neighbouring countries).

Expected changes in population. A prognosis must be based on scientific premises (analysis of population trends and changes in habitats, PVA, etc.); any time perspective, depending on the available material.

Present conservation measures. All national and international conservation measures adopted: species protection, conservation in reserves (including national parks and possibly landscape parks), sites of ecological interest, or as nature monuments (e.g., trees of monumental sizes inhabited by the described species), also active protection, i.e. breeding for restitution purposes, measures aimed at stabilization of the habitat of a population, etc. The used expressions: “protected species”, “protected by law”, “legally protected” refer to the last decree of the Minister of Environment, pertaining to animal species protection, of 28 September 2004 (Legal Gazette from 2004, no 220, item 2237; see Annex 1), based on the Law of Nature Conservation of 16 April 2004 (Legal Gazette of 2004, no 92, item 880) and mean “strict protection”. Included is also information about international conventions (“soft law”), directives of the European Union (“hard law”), as well as red books and lists, though they have no legal force.

Proposed conservation measures. Acceptance or critical appraisal of current conservation measures, proposals of new methodological and/or legal solutions, authors’ own suggestions, justification of proposals.

Summary. The most important information about the population status „in a pill”; particularly the occurrence of and threats to a species in Poland, its conservation status and current conservation measures; conclusions and recommendations for conservation of a species in the country.

Sources of information. Scientific and popular-scientific publications are cited in a simplified form, reduced to the names of authors and year of publication; sources of data include also authorised manuscripts, unpublished doctoral theses and other dissertations, as well as personal information. All these sources are arranged alphabetically, with successive numbering. In the text only numbers denoting cited publications are given (in square parentheses).