Golden jackal Canis aureus native in Poland
Over the last few years the expansion of the Golden jackal Canis aureus triggered discussions on the status of this species in countries in which it had never been recorded in the past.
First unusual observations of Golden jackals were made in Estonia, that is, very long distance from the boundaries of the species’ continuous range. This suggested that the recorded individuals either escaped from captivity or were deliberately introduced in the wild. Over the next few years there were new records of jackals from Latvia, Lithuania and northern Ukraine. Finally, the species was recored 3 times in Poland in 2015. There are no premises to suggest that in any of these places the species could have been accidentally or intenionally introduced. Therefore the Golden jackal should be considered to be native in Poland.
Fatal complications after inflammation by the Sosnowskyi’s hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi
A 67-year-old woman, who exposed herself to the sap of Sosnowskyi’s hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi while she was mowing her lawn several days ago, died in the Burn Treatment Centre in Siemianowice Śląskie, despite the fact that only 5% of the body surface on her arm was affected. She had suffered from chronic disease which weakened her immune system. Blood circulation cessation was the direct cause of her death.
First records of the Golden jackal Canis aureus in Poland
First documented Polish records of the Golden Jackal Canis aureus in Poland were made in May and June 2015 r. Sigle individulas were seen in the eastern part of the country, in the Biebrza National Park and near the Biała Podlaska.
In the past the natural range of the Golden jackal extended in southern Asia, central and northern Africa and in south-eastern Europe. After 1950 the species started expansion towards the north and west. Reproducing populations are already found e.g. in Austria and Hungary, and single individuals were recorded very close to the Polish border in Slovakia and Czech Republic. Moreover, jackals were also unexpectedly found in Estonia, and subsequently in Latvia, Ukraine and Lithuania. Although these records may result from self-propelled range expansion, possibility of deliberate introductions or escapes cannot be completely ruled out.
Military aspect of biological invasions
A new alien rush, north American Juncus anthelatus, was discovered in a the former military training area near Żagań (SW Poland). In 2014, 1200 tussocks were recorded there.
The species was accidentally introduced to Europe after 1900. It has been recorded in Great Britain, France and the Netherlands. The Netherlands were probably the source area for individuals introduced to Poland during military manoeuvres in 1997 or 1998, with the Dutch troops. The article describing this discovery will has just been published .
Yet another alien crustacean in the Baltic Sea
„Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies” has just published an article documenting records of an oriental shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus in the Wisła Śmiała estuary. This is the first occurrence of this species for the whole Baltic.
The natural range of the species extends from Japan, down to Korea and northern China. On ships’ hulls or in ballast water tanks it was introduced to other areas, including the Atlantic coast of Europe. This was probably the donor area for individuals introduced into the Baltic. The presence of ovigerous females and young individuals suggests that the species may establish in the Baltic Sea.
A new alien crustacean in the Baltic
A new alien crustacean, Megabalanus coccopoma, was found in 2014 Gdynia. Its natural range extends in the Pacific, from Mexico down to Peru.
In ships’ hulls and balast water tanks teh species was introduced to the Atlantic coast of North America and to Belgium and the Netherlands. The Polish record is first for the Baltic. The species was probably introduced to the Gulf of Gdansk with the marine aggregates used for hydrotechnical engineering. It is possible that also other species, including Megabalanus tintinnabulum, were introduced in this area together with Megabalanus coccopoma. Taxonomic identification of the collected samples is in progress.